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HomeCanadian News‘Throwaway youngsters’: Allegations of human trafficking, mistreatment at Ont. group residence chain

‘Throwaway youngsters’: Allegations of human trafficking, mistreatment at Ont. group residence chain

Click to play video: 'Kids risk human-trafficking and drugs to escape Ontario group homes'

Children danger human-trafficking and medicines to flee Ontario group houses

WATCH: Children danger human-trafficking and medicines to flee Ontario group houses

Cassidy Franck stares into her cellphone digicam, eyes exhausted, unblinking.

The screams of an 11-year-old lady being violently restrained echo within the background of the video.

For months in early 2021, this was her life inside a gaggle residence for women run by Hatts Off – a for-profit firm that’s the second-largest operator of group houses for youth in Ontario.

Positioned on the outskirts of Hamilton, the home she was assigned to was a hostile atmosphere that consisted of harsh bodily restraints, few or no actions, and terrible meals, in accordance with Franck. One former employee stated after they labored a shift on the residence, all they noticed within the fridge had been “a few carrots and three hen fingers in a field.”

“We had been all scared,” Franck stated. “The women felt that no one cared.”

So when a workers member on the group residence supplied her the possibility to reside together with her in her downtown Hamilton condo, Franck jumped on the alternative.

“I needed out, and that is my solely means,” she stated.

Weeks after shifting, detectives with Hamilton Police Service’s human trafficking division would rescue her from the condo, in accordance with Franck. She described it as a drug den, with older males coming and going.

Click to play video: 'Ontario won’t publicize information about ‘high-risk’ group homes: Global News investigation'

Ontario gained’t publicize details about ‘high-risk’ group houses: International Information investigation

Franck’s harrowing allegations are a part of a stunning portrait of what some youngsters face inside Ontario’s child-welfare system, which had greater than 12,000 youngsters — 17 years previous or youthful — in its care, in accordance with the newest knowledge from 2019. These houses soak up kids and youth who’ve skilled abuse, have advanced psychological well being wants or, in some instances, are orphaned.

A months-long investigation into Hatts Off spoke with 70 workers and youth who’ve labored or lived on the houses. International Information combed by way of lots of of pages of ministry inspections, analyzed 4 years’ price of missing-kids reviews, traced the monetary roots of 60 properties and obtained a secret authorities draft report flagging points on the firm years in the past.

The findings had been bleak: allegations of human trafficking that went ignored, underqualified workers and violent bodily restraints that would contain a employee pinning a toddler to the bottom.

Of the 70 individuals interviewed, 23 raised issues concerning the bodily situation of the corporate’s houses, 19 introduced up the standard of the meals served to youth and one other 17 expressed issues over a scarcity of outings and actions.

Employees stated circumstances diversified considerably throughout Hatts Off’s huge operations, which span almost 40 group and foster houses. Some areas felt “family-like,” with hearty home-cooked meals, vacation decorations and workers who attended parent-teacher conferences. Others reported seeing little meals within the fridge and workers members who spent a lot of their time browsing on their telephones, in accordance with former staff.

Click to play video: 'Kids ‘may not be safe’ in Ontario’s child welfare system'

Children ‘might not be secure’ in Ontario’s youngster welfare system

Among the many extra heartbreaking allegations had been these of a workers member holding a woman on the ground over items of damaged glass and one other spitting at a toddler’s face as he was restrained.

At one residence within the Hamilton space, an autistic boy was contained with such drive that his head left an imprint within the drywall, in accordance with two former workers members who say they witnessed the incident.

Hatts Off is one in every of almost 100 Ontario corporations that revenue from caring for youths.

The corporate receives a publicly funded per-diem charge for every youngster in its group houses. In line with paperwork obtained by International Information, charges diversified between $240 and $360 a day, although staff say youngsters who had greater wants may fetch upwards of $1,000 day by day.

Regardless of the substantial sums of cash flowing from public coffers, Hatts Off paid minimal wage or barely above, in accordance with present and former staff. The corporate stated that as of October 2022, “no group residence worker in Ontario would make lower than $19.50,” which features a $3-an-hour pandemic pay bump supplied by the federal government that was made everlasting in April.

Learn extra:

Children restrained over 2000 instances in a single 12 months in Ontario’s child-welfare system

Low salaries made attracting high expertise tough, former workers stated. The corporate would rent staff straight out of college or with no prior coaching in youngster and youth care, in accordance with former workers. Amongst these working with susceptible youth: workers who beforehand had jobs in hair styling, automotive gross sales and even worldwide college students.

The consequence: youngsters acquired insufficient care to assist them cope with trauma or advanced behavioural points, in accordance with workers and youth.

“These are throwaway youngsters that many individuals, in a normal sense,  simply don’t care about,” stated Grant Charles, an affiliate professor with the Faculty of Social Work on the College of British Columbia. Ontario’s child-welfare system, in accordance with Charles, has moved “previous the purpose of no restore.”

“We’re coping with usually among the most tough youngsters when it comes to behaviour, and we’re funding them the least,” Charles stated.

“It’s a system that’s not working.”

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Hatts Off declined repeated requests for an interview.

In a written response to a prolonged listing of questions, the corporate’s chief working officer, Bronwyn Naylor – daughter of the corporate’s founder, Gordon Naylor – said that most of the allegations shared by International Information “aren’t per our documentation” and that the corporate can’t “touch upon the specifics of anybody case,” citing confidentiality causes.

To guard the youngsters’s privateness, International Information will not be disclosing the areas of Hatts Off’s houses.

On Manitoulin Island, dwelling within the small neighborhood of Gore Bay, Franck is calm, poised. She is now 17.

Shoulder-length blond hair rests on her favorite gray sweatshirt, arms crossed on her knee.

The bucolic city, the place deer slowly wander the residential streets at dawn, is a stark change from her earlier group-home life hours away in southern Ontario.

“I consider it as a film,” Franck stated, a nervous smile breaking by way of her quiet manner. “I can’t discover a approach to make sense of it.”

Cassidy Franck pictured within the city of Gore Bay on Manitoulin Island, Ont.

(Carolyn Jarvis/International Information)

In Could 2021, Franck had escaped the “poisonous” group residence and had simply arrived on the ground-floor condo that belonged to Shadia Yusuf, who was employed by Hatts Off with out coaching, in downtown Hamilton.

Inside minutes of arriving at Yusuf’s residence, Franck felt one thing was off. She alleged Yusuf demanded that she promote medicine.

“We present up at this random condo, and this previous dude comes out. (Yusuf) arms me this bag of white crystal stuff,” stated Franck, who believes it was crack cocaine.

“She tells me to go promote it,” she recalled. “‘Go get my $200.’”

Later that very same day, Franck stated she watched as Yusuf was rushed to hospital after “tripping out” from ingesting too many magic mushrooms.

A picture shared with International Information exhibits a bag of what Cassidy Franck believed to be crack cocaine.


Franck stated she had trusted Yusuf. In any case, she was employed by a gaggle residence that the federal government licensed and that had been chosen by her kids’s assist employee.

“I obtained my hopes up so excessive,” she stated, including there was the promise of assist discovering a job working with automobiles and a everlasting escape from group-home life.

As she was 16 on the time, Franck stated she wanted permission from a Hatts Off supervisor and her kids’s assist employee to maneuver into Yusuf’s condo, which was granted.

Now alone within the condo, Franck stated issues spiralled additional uncontrolled.

Unusual males would go to the condo, prepare dinner crack cocaine and warn her she might be offered for intercourse, she stated.

“I used to be freaking out. I used to be like, ‘OK, like, what do I do?’” Franck recalled.

Learn extra:

Inside Ontario group houses the place youngsters had been known as ‘paycheques’

In its response to questions from International Information, Hatts Off stated it hires certified workers and all of its workers endure “rigorous background checks,” and all partake in “intensive coaching and continued schooling” as soon as on the job. Hatts Off additionally stated it pairs much less skilled workers with extra skilled workers to make sure they’re skilled correctly with out resident care being affected.

In a brief cellphone interview with International Information, Yusuf confirmed Franck lived in her condo for a quick interval however denied any connection or data of find out how to visitors girls, promoting or consuming medicine. She additionally denied that drug use led to her hospitalization, saying as an alternative that adopted a “breakdown” from an excessive amount of stress.

Two weeks after Franck moved into the condo, she stated undercover detectives with the Hamilton Police Service’s human-trafficking division knocked on the door.

“They gave me a card. It was for a (magnificence) salon, but it surely had their quantity on it,” she stated.

When she was alone, she made the decision, Franck stated.

Officers would later drive her seven hours again to her mom on Manitoulin Island, she stated.

Cellphone pictures shared with International Information present Cassidy Franck behind a Hamilton Police Service car after she stated she was rescued from the house of her group residence employee.


No prices had been laid, police stated.

On July 2, 2021, solely weeks after Franck stated she was rescued, Hatts Off despatched an electronic mail to workers stating it was closing the youngsters’s residence the place she lived. The corporate stated it was “as a result of staffing shortages associated to the pandemic and the distant location of this system.”

Hatts Off nonetheless operates 9 different youth group houses throughout southern Ontario.

In an electronic mail to International Information, the corporate stated workers can’t legally cease a toddler from leaving.

“A few of these (care) agreements, which we’re certain by the CAS to stick to, might enable the person to signal themselves out and in of care on their very own volition,” Hatts Off COO Naylor stated.

She wouldn’t say whether or not Yusuf was fired – however stated extra usually that “in any case the place workers have failed to guard a toddler or youth, their employment is instantly terminated.” Yusuf stated she give up.

Trafficking wasn’t solely an issue on the residence the place Franck was dwelling, it was allegedly taking place elsewhere.

Employees who beforehand labored at one other Hatts Off group residence between 2010 and 2020 within the Kitchener-Waterloo space stated strangers would decide up women in the midst of the evening. A few of them had been as younger as 12, in accordance with workers.

The identical automobiles would usually be seen ready in entrance of the houses, stated workers, who would hurriedly write down licence plates and descriptions of the autos and drivers to maintain observe of them.

“Group houses and residential therapy centres are magnets for exploiters,” stated Charles, who has intently studied the child-welfare system and at-risk youth.

Women who’ve skilled sexual abuse or different trauma make straightforward targets, he stated.

“There’s a vulnerability there, a promise made to those younger individuals usually that life will get higher,” Charles stated. “The exploiter, the pimp will give them the love that they need and the connection that they need. All the things they need.”

Learn extra:

Youngster welfare companies, households left in darkish about ‘high-risk’ group houses, some linked to deaths

A former employee, whom International Information will not be figuring out for worry of reprisal, described an insidious cycle the place one lady would recruit one other.

The brand new arrival – nonetheless involved with a suspected trafficker – would entice different women to depart at evening by promising cash or an escape from the group residence.

“She’s contemporary off the streets.… That’s all it takes for the entire thing to come back falling aside,” the employee stated.

“When (the ladies) come again with needle holes of their arms, that makes it even worse.”

Runaway youngsters are an unlucky actuality in group houses. However the frequency at Hatts Off houses shocked workers.

“It’s an overt cry for assist,” stated one other employee, whom International Information isn’t figuring out as they nonetheless work within the child-welfare sector.

Hatts Off filed 1,170 incident reviews for youths who went lacking or absent from a house between January 2017 and December 2020. The information, filed to the province, was obtained by International Information by way of a freedom of data request.

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Damaged youngster welfare methods are a results of earnings being put forward of youngsters, specialists say

That variety of reviews is the very best within the province and the fifth-highest per mattress.

Considered one of Hatts Off’s group houses in Kitchener submitted 397 reviews of lacking youth, probably the most reviews in Ontario on a per-bed foundation.

The group residence the place Franck as soon as lived filed 183 such reviews in that very same four-year interval.

“It’s as in the event that they’re saying, ‘I don’t need to be right here,’” the previous employee stated.

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Hatts Off stated that missing-kids reviews are filed for quite a lot of causes, together with when a toddler is late for curfew. The corporate added that “human trafficking victims usually performed a task.”

“Regardless of a large effort to coach workers on treating human trafficking victims and creating security plans in collaboration with police and different neighborhood assets, Ministry coverage finally makes it unimaginable to forestall a toddler or youth from leaving our houses,” Naylor stated.

Learn extra:

Ontario ombudsman finds ‘substantial enhance’ in complaints involving youngsters in care

Hatts Off additionally stated workers made each effort to maintain residents secure by passing info to the police and going to areas the place they believed residents had been to aim to deliver them residence. Hatts Off added that if human trafficking is suspected, it conducts a radical investigation and notifies the youngsters’s assist society and the ministry.

However when staff reported trafficking issues, they are saying little was performed.

“It makes me really feel sick,” the identical former workers member stated. “Our issues – it was virtually as in the event that they had been falling on deaf ears.”

The previous workers member stated she contacted Hatts Off administration, police, numerous kids’s assist societies, the ombudsman – even the Ministry of Kids, Group and Social Providers.

The duty for investigating complaints will get caught in a tangled internet of group-home operators, kids’s assist societies, police and the province.

Consultants say this reveals important gaps in oversight.

The Ministry of Kids, Group and Social Providers declined to reply to questions on trafficking in group houses. London, Waterloo, Hamilton and Toronto kids’s assist societies additionally sidestepped queries from International Information.

“We’re reviewing these allegations by way of our inside overview course of,” a spokesperson for the Kids’s Help Society of Toronto stated.

Actual property valued at $55M

Hatts Off has been a key participant in Ontario’s child-welfare system for greater than 4 a long time.

Gordon Naylor and his spouse Ellen based the corporate in 1985 with a single, four-bed group residence.

International Information has realized {that a} associated firm, Hatts Off Specialised Providers, filed for chapter in 2013 with $8.7 million in whole debt, which included near $3 million owed to the Canada Income Company for unpaid workers’ revenue tax, Canada Pension Plan and Employment Insurance coverage contributions.

A number of years prior, the Naylor household included one other firm, Hatts Off Inc., and commenced making use of for foster and group-home licences underneath the brand new identify. The corporate presently operates 9 kids’s residences, over two dozen foster houses, and at the very least 4 houses for adults with developmental disabilities.

And because the enterprise grew over the a long time, so did the Naylors’ wealth and real-estate portfolio.

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Connor Properties: Ontario household behind allegedly rundown group houses additionally personal luxurious trip leases

Referencing property information, tax assessments and market-value estimates, International Information gauged the residential properties utilized by Hatts Off as foster, mentor or group houses for youth or adults to be price $26.7 million. The properties are owned by members of the Naylor household or two corporations linked to the household, Naylor 9 Holdings Restricted and ECN Inc.

“They purchase all of the houses, after which they only put the youngsters there,” stated a former workers member. “Shopping for as many houses as you may, letting the worth enhance over time – it’s actually nearly actual property.”

When requested to reply to questions on its actual property, Hatts Off pushed again, saying it was “almost unimaginable to search out landlords prepared to hire properties for use as group houses.”

“The one sensible approach to open packages to serve susceptible and underserved populations has been to buy houses, usually by way of private debt, and to hire these houses to Hatts Off,” Naylor, Hatts Off COO, wrote in response to International Information’s written questions.

The Naylor household – Gordon and 4 of his kids who’ve ties to Hatts Off, or corporations linked to them – owns one other $28.2 million in real-estate holdings.

Amongst them are a waterfront trip residence within the Florida Keys owned by Gordon Naylor that’s valued at $1.76 million and a lodge and occasion area in Ontario’s Simcoe area valued at $3.3 million.

“We is not going to be commenting on the worth of the Naylor household’s personal actual property property, as there are a number of personal sources of revenue that haven’t any relation to Hatts Off,” Naylor stated.

Tisheena Burnette lived in a Hatts Off group residence outdoors Brantford, Ont., when she was 12.

Twelve years later, she stated she grapples with each emotional and bodily scars from her time there.

She stated the marks above her knee and on her arm are fixed reminders of a restraint by staff, the place she stated she was pinned down on high of a damaged mason jar for refusing to go to her room.

“It shattered and (workers) dropped me within the glass,” she stated. “You’ll be able to’t actually breathe. You’re in hysterics.”

Tisheena Burnette stated she was within the care of Hatts Off from 2012 to 2014.

(International Information)

Hatts Off says bodily restraints are solely used as a final resort when the security of a kid or different individual is at rapid danger and after “lesser intrusive measures – like de-escalation strategies – have been tried.”

Burnette stated cash was at all times on the centre of her care – and it was at all times scarce.

Whether or not it was little meals within the fridge or no actions, she stated Hatts Off tried to save cash all over the place it may. She stated she slept on a mattress with springs protruding.

“They put the least amount of cash into groceries, into clothes … after which they pocket the remainder,” she stated.

“It’s sickening.”

A picture taken inside a Hatts Off group residence for youths and shared with International Information exhibits bugs crawling on the bottom. The corporate stated the problem has since been resolved.


Ministry inspection reviews echoed these issues.

In 2020, ministry inspectors discovered that, for a time, youngsters had been consuming meals that relied on meals donations from an area church.

One lady stated her mattress was uncomfortable and her bedding was “disgusting,” so she obtained a brand new sheet by “dumpster diving” at one other of the corporate’s group houses, in accordance with the inspector’s report.

In response to questions concerning the inspection reviews, Hatts Off stated the church donations have ended, the youth in query was supplied with new bedding and towels, and takes concern with the allegation about dumpster diving.

“Regardless of insufficient authorities funded per-diems, our budgets present separate allowances for meals, journey, and clothes, every of that are equal to or exceed what a median Canadian family of comparable measurement would spend,” Naylor stated. It might not specify what supply it was referring to.

Shortly earlier than publication, International Information additionally acquired an unsolicited electronic mail from Hatts Off containing roughly 40 letters of endorsement from staff, written on the request of Hatts Off’s CEO, Gordon Naylor. Roughly half had been nameless.

The letters supplied a drastically totally different view of life at their amenities.

They described devoted staff planning particular Christmas occasions for youths of their care and journeys to Toronto Blue Jays video games or Niagara Falls.

Learn extra:

Inspection reviews reveal disturbing circumstances inside Ontario group houses

Lots of the letters stated Hatts Off spared no expense for the youngsters in its care. Some workers despatched letters with their names hooked up, however Hatts Off wouldn’t make among the present or former workers out there for an interview and verification.

“Everybody can see firsthand that the purchasers aren’t underfed, lack clothes, nor are the homes in disrepair,” wrote Kim Milani, a supervisor with 29 years of expertise at Hatts Off.

Some workers additionally pushed again towards “distressing allegations” of human trafficking.

“I do know there was a program that housed victims who had been concerned in human trafficking,” wrote Jay Wilson. “I’m additionally conscious that (the) regional police companies labored intently with the workers at that program and expressed nothing however gratitude for the work the workers there did.”

One other former youth who lived at Hatts Off roughly 17 years in the past contacted International Information to discuss the success of the corporate in caring for among the “hardest instances.”

“I’ve lived in six well-known group-homes all through the province and have lived with lots of of youngsters over time, and the numbers don’t lie,” stated Roxanne Williams. “Hatts Off has extra success tales than anywhere I’ve lived.”

Ontario isn’t alone: Youngster-welfare methods throughout the nation are in a state of disaster.

B.C., Alberta and Manitoba are going through pressing requires governments to confront obtrusive issues in foster and group houses that disproportionately have an effect on youngsters who’re Indigenous and black.

Ontario’s Ministry of Kids, Group and Social Providers declined to reply an in depth listing of questions for this story.

A spokesperson stated the province is engaged on redesigning youngster welfare to enhance “oversight and compliance mechanisms for residential licensees who’re answerable for offering kids and youth with the standard of care they deserve.”

Ontario Minister of Kids, Group and Social Providers Merrilee Fullerton solutions questions at Queen’s Park in Toronto on Wednesday, Could 5, 2021.


New regulatory modifications are scheduled to take impact in Ontario in July 2023. They’ll require new hires to have a level, diploma or certificates in a related area or expertise and abilities related to their duties. The modifications cease in need of calling for a level or diploma in youngster and youth care, particularly.

However specialists say the glacial tempo at which modifications are being carried out is reflective of the actual fact the youngsters caught up within the child-welfare system are “virtually invisible at a political degree.”

“Solely when one thing goes mistaken, and there’s an inquiry does the federal government begin to concentrate, however that always doesn’t final lengthy,” stated Charles, a professor who has studied each Ontario’s and different provinces’ child-welfare methods.

Again in Gore Bay on Manitoulin Island, Franck spends her time long-boarding subsequent to the city’s marina, the place a cool wind blows in off Lake Huron’s North Channel.

She is ending highschool and stated she’s planning to use to school to develop into a private assist employee in long-term care, like her mom.

Regardless of her tranquil environment, Franck stated she nonetheless has nightmares the place she hears the piercing screams of the 11-year-old.

Requested about what she needed the federal government to do about Hatts Off, she had three phrases: “Shut it down.”

—with recordsdata from Mikail Malik

If you want to share your expertise working or dwelling within the child-welfare system, please attain out to us at



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